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  • 8 Edge Detector

    Small Robot : 8 Edge Detector # . < < < Previous List All Next > > > . Introduction: An Edge Detector is also a self controlled Robot, which will recognize edge of a flat surface (like table) and moves within the flat surface, without falling down. Two IR sensor modules are used on front side of the Small Robot to recognize the edge of a surface. The two IR sensors on both sides, read the presence of the flat surface and the signal is sent to the micro-controller (ATTINY84) accordingly. The signals received from the IR sensor modules are analyzed by the ATTINY84, then Small Robot moves back a little and takes right or left turn accordingly, based on the 4 bit motor control data, through the motor driver (L293D) on base board. (refer Small Robot Base Frame for motor control codes). The concept of Edge Detector Robot is to avoid falling from edge of any flat surface. The Edge Detector searches for the reflection of IR light from the bottom surface, then moves forward or takes turn accordingly, to avoid falling from the flat surface. Here, the Small Robot is programmed to take a right or left turn, when the IR light reflection is absent, depending on the IR sensor module signal, else moves forward continuously. About Edge Sensing: The Edge Detector uses two IR (Infra-red) sensor modules (readily available) to read the presence of bottom surface. The IR sensor module consists of an IR emitting LED , an IR sensor LED, indication LEDs and an OP-AMP IC (mostly LM358), with a trimpot for sensitivity adjustment. When the module is connected to 5VDC power supply, the IR LED emits IR light on the bottom surface. The IR light reflected from the bottom surface and falls on an IR sensor (in LED shape), placed near to the IR LED. The op-amp based circuit, reads the change in the internal resistance of the IR sensor, due to IR light falling on it, and status is displayed by glowing indicator LED (red). When the reflected IR light is absent, then the indicator LED does not glow (status off). A three pin connector is available on IR sensor board, out of which two are for 5VDC and ground. The third pin is signal OUT pin. So, when the surface below the IR sensor is present, then a HIGH (1) signal is generated at OUT pin. Similarly, when the surface is absent, then a LOW (zero) signal is generated at OUT pin. The LED indicator glows accordingly. After assembly, adjust the trimpots on the IR sensor boards, independently, for their sensitivity to surface reflection. The arrangement of two numbers of IR sensor boards are show below. Both the IR sensor boards are to be fitted on front side of the Small Robot, on either side. The distance between the two extreme IR sensors shall be kept more than the overall width of the Small Robot. Working of Edge Detector: Making of Small Robot as Edge Detector is simple and easy. A simple bracket is required to position two IR sensor boards on the front side of the Edge Detector. A PCB with micro-controller ATTINY84 is used as control system for the Edge Detector, based on the digital signals (at OUT pins) available from two IR sensor boards. The digital signals from the IR sensor boards are read as, two digital inputs by the micro-controller. Then, the programmed logic makes the Small Robot to make a right or left turn, if digital logic goes LOW (0), else moves forward. To avoid falling on immediate turning, the Small Robot moves little backward, then takes turn accordingly. A button switch, SW1 on control board, is useful to start the Edge Detector, after switching ON the power supply to the Control Board. The complete circuit diagram of Control Board with ATTINY84, is available below. Use jumper wires to connect two OUT pins from Sensor Board to Control board. Enjoy DIY Download ED HEX file Contact for Source Code Download file from above link and remove .TXT extension. . < < < Previous Once Small Robot's Base Frame is made, then, various control systems for Small Robot are developed and available for selection, using 'Previous ' and 'Next ' buttons here. Next > > > .

  • 01 Omni Robo Base

    Previous < Back Next DESC ABOUT OMNI ROBO BASE Intro to Omni Robo - BASE

  • 3 LDR based Line Follower

    Slim-Bot 3 LDR based Line Follower Introduction .. As the name indicates, SLIM-BOT, is a small, simple, compact robot, which may be moved or controlled using various inputs, without using any micro-controller. There is no need of programming language or coding to make and control the Slim-Bot. This is the basic project for those, who don’t have any knowledge in micro-controllers and programming. The various controls for the Slim-Bot is completely based on the electronic circuits only. Sometimes, IR sensor may misbehave due to interference from sun-light or other gadgets like IR remote etc. Using LDR may eliminate the external IR interference and more comfortable. More over IR light is invisible to naked eye. So, it is difficult to confirm that the IR LED is working properly or not. To make LDR (Line Depending Resistor) based Line follower, two sets of, White light emitting LEDs (as Light Source) and Light Depending Resistors (as Light Sensors) are used on either side of a line, fitted on the front side of the Slim-Bot. The signal generated by the LDRs, based on the presence of the line, is fed to the two digital inputs of the 8 pin berg strip. The Slim-Bot moves forward or takes turn accordingly to move itself on the line. About LDR sensing: To make the Slim-Bot compact, two numbers of Light Sensor Modules / Boards are made for reading the presence of the line. Each Light Sensor Board contains, a White-LED and a LDR sensor , which are positioned side-by-side on a small PCB. A transistor with required current limiting resistor and connectors are used for each Light Sensor Board. A 100K trimpot (variable resistor) is used to adjust the output signal voltage. The trimpot has to be adjusted to get proper threshold voltage as input to D0 or D3 pins of 8 pin connector on the Slim-Bot. The complete circuit diagram of Light Sensor Module / Board is shown below. When, the Light Sensor Board is connected to power supply (here it is 3.7VDC), then the white LED glows. Adjust the emitting light from white LED to reflect on the LDR, when placed above a white surface, at a small distance. The signal output may be observed by connecting a red LED across the signal output and ground. Adjust the trimpot, until, the red LED gets OFF on black surface and GLOWS on white surface. Working of Line Follower: Two such Light Sensor Modules / Boards are fitted on either side, in front of the Slim-Bot. The circuit diagram, connecting the two Light Sensor Modules to the 8 pin berg strip on base board, is shown below. When, the output from Light Sensor Board gets high signal, due to white surface (reflected light from white-LED), then the motor on the same side rotates . Similarly, when the output from Light Sensor Board gets low signal, due to black surface (insufficient reflected light from white LED from black surface), then the motor on the same side stops rotation. So, the motor on white surface side rotates in forward direction and the motor on black surface side (line is drawn in black colour) stops rotation. Thus, making the Slim-Bot to automatically re-position on the line. When both the LDR sensors are above the white surface, the Slim-Bot moves straight forward, continuously. CLICK HERE to know, how to make BASE for SLIM-BOT.

  • 6 Line Follower

    Small Robot : 6 Line Follower # . < < < Previous List All Next > > > . Introduction A Line Follower is self controlled Robot, which follows a thick line. Many types of sensors are used to read the line. The Small Robot uses IR (Infra-Red) sensors, to read the line. Five pairs of IR LEDs and IR sensors (shaped as LED) are used here to read the Line. All the five IR sensing pairs are arranged in a row, perpendicular to the line path. The Small Robot always try to position symmetrical to the line, by following the middle IR sensing pair (out of 5 IR pairs in a row). To have more input pins (at least 5 inputs are required for IR sensors), in small size, ATTNY84 micro-controller is selected, which have 14 pins. Out of 14 pins, five pins are used for sensing the line and four pins are required to control the two motors, through the motor driver (L293D). (refer Small Robot Base Frame for motor control codes). In general Line Followers are set to follow the line and complete target distance as soon as possible without leaving the line. The programming is either target for fast line follower, with smooth curves, or complicated line follower with various types of obstacles. The Small Robot is programmed here to follower various line types, like, sharp bends, sharp turns, sharp curves, crossings, gaps in lines, zig-zag lines, double lines, stop identification etc. A model path used to test the Small Robot is shown below, having various line shapes. About Line Sensing: Most of the Line Followers use IR (Infra-red) sensing system to read the presence of line. An IR LED emits IR light on the bottom surface (where the line is drawn). The IR light reflects from the surface and falls on an IR sensor (in LED shape), placed near to the IR LED. The IR sensor is connected in reverse biased, which varies its internal resistance, depending on the brightness of reflected IR light. The internal resistance of the IR sensor decreases with increase in falling IR light. So, when the surface below the IR sensor is white, more reflected light falls on the IR sensor, which makes least internal resistance. Similarly, if the surface is black, least light reflects on the IR sensor, which makes highest internal resistance. Due to change in the resistance of IR sensor, the voltage at the junction of the IR sensor and fixed resistance varies, which are connected in series with power supply and ground. A typical IR LED + IR sensor pair arrangement with the circuit diagram is shown below. Total 5 such IR sensing pairs are required for Small Robot, and soldered on a PCB, then fixed in front of the Small Robot. All the IR LEDs and IR sensors are 3 mm size. Maintain the gap between. the two successive IR sensors should be just less than the line width. The IR sensor PCB, with 5 IR pairs, shall be fitted in front of the Small Robot, with a clearance adjustment arrangement (from surface) , to adjust the sensitivity with black and white surfaces. Working of Line Follower: Making of Small Robot as Line Follower is simple and easy. One PCB is required for IR sensing board, with 5 pairs of IR LEDs and IR sensors explained above. Another PCB with micro-controller ATTINY84 is used as control system for the Line Follower based on the varying voltages obtained from five IR senors. The varying voltages from the IR sensor board are read as five digital inputs by the micro-controller. Then, the programmed logic makes the Small Robot to follow middle IR sensor. In case, the Small Robot reads the line from any other IR sensors, the required output code is sent through the four motor control pins, to turn the Small Robot accordingly, else Small Robot moves in straight line. In case of sharp turns, gaps, crossings, junctions or stop blocks etc., the Small Robot moves little further and then takes necessary movement accordingly. The complete circuit diagram of Control Board with ATTINY84, is available below. Use jumper wires to connect S1…S5 pins from Sensor Board to Control board consecutively. The shorting jumper J1 is provided to select the line colour as BLACK or WHITE. Either Red or Yellow LED glows by selecting the shorting jumper position, for Black or White line. A button switch, SW1, is useful to start the Line Follower, after switching ON the power supply to the Control Board. All the Best Download LF HEX file Contact for Source Code Download file from above link and remove .TXT extension. . < < < Previous Once Small Robot's Base Frame is made, then, various control systems for Small Robot are developed and available for selection, using 'Previous ' and 'Next ' buttons here. Next > > > .

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  • OmniRobo

    OMNI ROBO 00 Omni Wheel Intro to omni wheel Read More 01 Omni Robo Base Intro to Omni Robo - BASE Read More 02 Omni Robo Joystick Intro to joystick and control Read More

  • 2 DC SUPPLY

    < Previous Next > Are you ever confused with the words AC and DC w.r.t. power supplies? If YES, then this page is for you. Just go through this page slowly and get an idea about DC power supply. Hay, there is NO EXAM afterwards. Nobody is behind you to check. Relax. If NO, just go through the highlighted words quickly. If you want to know about any highlighted word, then read slowly. Actually, the name DC ( Direct Current ) is a misnomer. Some people may think, the power supply, which is available directly to home or office is Direct Current (DC) supply. NO. it is AC supply only. ​ If you consider the behavior of current flow in DC supply, its name shall be either Uni-directional Current supply or Non-Alternating Current supply. Okay, coming to our topic, DC supply is the power supply normally available from batteries, which have fixed positive and negative polarities, which will never change the direction of current flow. i.e., current flows from positive terminal to negative terminal. Where as the electrons flow from negative terminal to positive terminal (Current Electricity). OHM's law applies easily for DC power supplies. ​ i.e., V=I*R or I=V/R or R=V/I where, V=voltage, I=current flow and R=Resistance. ​ In electronic circuits, most of the times, we use DC power supply only. The DC power may be drawn from Batteries or rectified AC power supply. Many methods are available to convert AC power supply to DC power supply, out of which, Rectifier circuit and SMPS (Switching Mode Power Supply) are highly used. In general, DC power supplies have two or three types of voltage levels. Positive (+ve) Voltage level Negative (-ve) Voltage level Ground (gnd) level Positive Voltage is known for higher potential, where Negative Voltage is known for lower potential. Ground is the reference for both the Positive and Negative Voltage levels, which lies between the positive and negative voltages. Some times, like batteries and cells, where only two terminals are available from the power source, the ground and negative terminals are called by any name as ground or negative. Where as positive terminal is called as positive only. Actually, the voltage levels mentioned above are relative voltage levels to each other. If you observe the figure below, four cells are arranged in series, each with 1.5Volts DC. Each cell is marked as +ve and -ve on both the ends. You may observe that, by selecting the connections (CN1 to CN5) as ground reference, the Positive and Negative Voltages vary. For easy understanding, ground level may be the basic reference level marked as 0V and the voltage above the reference may be considered as positive voltage and the voltage below the reference may be considered as negative voltage. So, the total voltage difference between the positive to negative terminal may be considered as arthmatic summation of positive and negative voltages. eg: Total voltage between CN4 and CN1 in any case is 4.5V only. DC power supplies are highly used in electronic circuits and mechatronics projects. Most of the cases, the DC Desktop power supply is used, which is derived from mains power supply (after rectification and filtration) for testing, then connect to battery power supply for final project. AC to DC adaptors are used for economical and easy DC power supply for our projects or Battery packs, based on the required voltage and current. Now-a-days, rechargeable batteries, (like Lithium-Ion, LiPo, LiFePo4 etc.) are affordable for the electronics and mechatronics projects

  • 1 ELECTRICITY

    < Previous Next > :STATIC ELECTRICITY: Static electricity is a stationary electric charge, produced due to an imbalance between positive and negative charges in an object or two near-by objects. Generally, this charge is build up on the surface of the object. To release the charge (or discharge) on the object, an electric path has to be created between positive and negative surfaces, through a circuit or an electric conductor (eg. copper wire). ​ Some materials that tend to gain or lose electrons easily, when comes in contact with other materials, like human hair, human skin, wool, cloth, silk, nylon, plastic sheet etc. Due to Static electricity, some times you feel mild electric shock and may feel nuisance. ​ Static Electricity has some advantages / applications , which are used in photo-copying machines for toner transfer, air pollution control systems using electro-static discharge concept, paint sprayers etc. ​ So, our hands (skin) may develop a mild static electricity when rubbing with glass or aluminum or silk cloth etc., which may be harmful (or damage) some sensitive ICs (Integrated Circuits). So, we should discharge static electricity from our hand before working with some ICs. We have to just touch (do not rub) to some metallic sheet to discharge Static electricity from our hand, before working on static electricity sensitive electronic components. Static electricity discharge pads are also available. ​ The main difference between the Static Electricity and Current Electricity are, In Static Electricity, the charges are at rest and in Current Electricity, the electrons are moving. The Static Electricity may be observed on the surface of insulator, where as Current Electricity means moving of electrons inside the conductor. Coulomb(s): Coulomb is unit of electrical charge and its symbol is C. A quantity of 1C is equal to approximately 6.24 x 10^18 electrons (its charge). (need not worry about these definitions. This is to just have an idea only) :CURRENT ELECTRICITY: Have you heard riddle “Which city has electrons” Answer is ELECTRICITY. The explanation below is to easily understand the term Electricity and its relative terms. In reality, understanding electricity and flow of electricity is a vast subject. In theory, Electricity means flow of electrons from higher potential to lower potential in conductors. You may be wondering, how electrons flow? What is conductor? . . . Do you remember basics of Quantum Physics? For quick recap, an atom consists of Protons(positively charged), Neutrons(no charge) and Electrons(negatively charged) particles. Protons and Neutrons occupy centre of the atom called neucleus and electons revolve around it. The quanity of Protons and Electrons always matches for an atom, so, the overall charge of the atom becomes ZERO. Most of the physics and chemistry depends on the behaviour of outer-most electrons and distance from the neuclies of the atom. Same with the electricity also. The (electric) Conductors, normally have one electron in the outer-most shell and/or loosly bound to the neuclies, i.e., very less energy is required to separate the outer-most electron from the atom. As the electron is negatively charged, it gets repelled by another negatively charged particle (electron) or gets attracted to positively charged particle (proton) of another atom. If an electron is separated from an atom, as the number of protons remains same, the atom becomes positively charged by 1, which is called cat-ion. These cat-ions have attraction towards negatively charged particles, i.e., electrons again to balance the overall charge of the atom. As per electron cloud theory, the loosely bound electrons form as electron cloud within the conductor (say metals) and move in haphazardly within the conductor. Electro Motive Force (e.m.f.): Coming to electricity, some (electrical) force is required to push the loosly-bound electron from the metal. As the electron moves out of the atom, it repels the loosly-bound electron of the nearest atom. The positively charged atom (cat-ion) attracts the next electron coming from the (electrical) force. This chain continues to create a flow of electrons. On the other side, the (electrical) force attracts and collects the flowing electrons. So, the (electrical) force must have positively charged elements to attract the electrons in the loop. The electrical force which makes the loop to create flow of electrons is called as Electro-Motive-Force (E.M.F.). So, an e.m.f. is required to generate flow of electrons in the conductor, pushes free electrons (loosly-bound electrons) on one side from its negative pole and attracts the free electrons on the other side, i.e. positive pole. In other words, electrons are negatively charged and carry their charge through the conductor, from one end to other end. So, electricity may be considered as moving the electrical charge through the conductor. The electrical charge cannot continue, unless the continuous contact of the conductor is available from beginning of the e.m.f. to receiving end of the e.m.f. i.e., the flow of charge will be disturbed, if the connectivity from any one of the ends of e.m.f. is lost. So, the continuation (or stoppage) of electricity may be controlled by a switch, which makes or breaks the continuity of the chain. So, e.m.f. is considered as the energy supplied to the conductor to have flow of electrons or electric charge, which is measured at end points of e.m.f. generator, like, battery, dynamo, solar cells etc. KEYWORDS: Potential Difference (P.D.) : Potential energy is the position possesed by electric particle due to location in an electric field. This may be compared as the position of an object on the earth w.r.t. distance from the centre of the earth, gravitational force on the object. Higher the altitutude means higher position and vice-versa. So, the difference between the potential energy of electrical particles in the circuit may be considered as Potential Difference. Voltage : Voltage is the energy required to move unit charge from one point to another, while electric charge is flowing. Voltage is measuring unit of Potential Difference between any two points or across a passive element of the electrical charge circuit. The sum of Voltages across all the passive elements in series is equal to the e.m.f. of the circuit. Volt(s) : Volt is the electrical unit of voltage and its symbol is V). One Volt is defined as energy consumption of one joule per electric charge of one coulomb. i.e., 1V = 1J/C. (don't worry or confuse about the definition right now). as per OHM's law, One volt is equal to current of 1 amp flows through resistance of 1 ohm: 1V = 1A ⋅ 1Ω ( formulated as V = I . R ) Current : The quantity of electrical charge moving between two points at any moment, due to e.m.f. is called current. The current may be considered as number of electrons flowing parallel to each other at an instant. It means, higher the electrons flowing across the conductor at a time is considered as higher current is flowing. Ampere(s) : Ampere is the electrical unit of Current and its symbol is A. One Ampere is defined as the current that flows with electric charge of one Coulomb per second. 1A = 1C/sec. (don't worry or confuse about the definition right now). as per OHM's law, One Ampere is equal to the current flows through resistance of 1 ohm across 1 volt: 1A = 1V / 1Ω ( formulated as I = V / R ) The fundamentals of Electricity is to be known before going through the next pages. The basics and keywords are frequently used in the future explanations. More details are available in the next pages, wherever applicable.

  • 00 Omni Wheel

    Previous < Back Next desc about omni wheel Intro to omni wheel

  • SlimBot

    Slim Bot 1 Base & IR follower How to DIY . . . . . A slim and compact robot working WITHOUT any MICRO-CONTROLLER and NO programming . . . 2 IR based Line Follower How to DIY . . . . . A slim and compact IR line follower working WITHOUT any MICRO-CONTROLLER. NO programming . . . 3 LDR based Line Follower How to DIY . . . . . A slim and compact LDR based line follower working WITHOUT any MICRO-CONTROLLER. NO programming . . . 4 Wireless Keypad Control How to DIY . . . . . A slim and compact BOT controlled using wireless Keypad, WITHOUT any MICRO-CONTROLLER. NO programming . . . 5 Wireless Joystick Control How to DIY . . . . . A slim and compact BOT controlled using wireless Analog Joystick, WITHOUT any MICRO-CONTROLLER. NO programming . . . 6 Wireless 5D Rocker Control How to DIY . . . . . A slim and compact BOT controlled using wireless Digital 5D Rocker Joystick, WITHOUT any MICRO-CONTROLLER. NO programming . . . 7 Wireless Hand Gesture Control How to DIY . . . . . A slim and compact BOT controlled using wireless Hand Gestures, WITHOUT any MICRO-CONTROLLER. NO programming . . .

  • Robotics | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    ROBOT : INTRODUCTION ROBOT PROJECTS NO Microcontroller ::SLIM-BOT:: #1 Base & IR follower #2 IR Line Follower #3 LDR Line Follower #4 W/L Keypad Control #5 W/L Joystick Control #6 W/L 5D Rocker Control #7 W/L Hand Gesture Control AVR/ATTINY based :Small Robot: #1 Base Frame #2 Keypad Control #3 Joystick Control #4 IR Remote Control #6 Line Follower #7 Path Follower #8 Edge Detector #9 Obstacle Avoider o o d

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