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  • ICs | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    ic As the name suggests, An Integrated Circuit (IC), is a summation of electronic elements of a functional circuit available in small package. ​ Integrated Circuit (IC) is also called as Chip or Microchip or Silicon Chip, In other words, IC is a small semiconductor wafer, usually made of silicon, on which multiple tiny transistors, resistors, diodes, capacitors etc., are fabricated to form a useful or functional circuit, which is enclosed in a plastic or ceramic material with the connecting pins on its periphery (or surface). An IC can do following functions in single or combination of counter, timer, amplifier, voltage regulation, oscillator, memory, ADC, DAC , arthematics etc. A microprocessor or a micro-controller also falls under IC catagory. Integration: The complexity and functionality of an IC depends on the number of transistors and associated electronic components used on a silicon wafer. The following is the types of integration and associated number of transistors used in the IC. ICs are available in various packages with specific name. The package name indicates the size, shape, position of pins, pin out format etc. ​ All Micro-Processors, Micro-Controllers, Voltage Regulators, Op-Amps etc., are ICs (Integrated Circuits) only

  • SleekVoltmeter | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    Sleek Voltmeter-cum-Battery monitor The simple circuit presented here can measure DC voltage from 0V to +50V in a sleek enclosure with independent power supply option. The circuit may be used to monitor the voltage of battery (up to 12V battery). The power supply for the circuit may be derived from a general purpose 9V battery (or 8V to 12V DC power source). ​ATTINY85 is eight pin MCU sufficiently powerful for the project, with 8KB flash + 512B RAM + 512B EEPROM and 1MHz default clock frequency, is heart of the system. The MCU continuously measures Voltage through its one of the ADC pins (ADC3). The ADC values are processed by the MCU and converted to Voltage value, then displayed on OLED accordingly. ​ OLED display is small display of 0.96” size, 5VDC supply, I2C connector, with 128x64 pixel resolution. It has 4 pins, out of which 2 for power supply, 1 for serial data (SDA pin) and 1 for the clock (SCL pin). The value is displayed in one row only using big font. To display the text in big font, the code is set for 32 pixel height and 24 pixel width. The Voltmeter of the circuit can measure and display maximum voltage up to 50Volts DC. If the voltage exceeds 50V DC, the display shows moving squares, which indicates OVERFLOW. To protect the MCU ATTINY85, the measurement should be limited to 50V. Refer full circuit diagram: Working of the circuit : When SW1 is switched ON, the 9VDC from the battery is step-down to 5VDC by voltage regulator IC 7805, which is the power supply for the MCU,ATTINY85 and OLED. All the pixels of the OLED (display) will glow for a while, as a self test and then blank screen for a while. Then, the program enters in a loop to read voltage at ADC pin (pin 2 of IC2) and displays the voltage accordingly. Initial Setup : Once the PCB is ready (general purpose PCB is used here), write/burn SleekVoltMeter.HEX to the MCU ATTINY85, using any AVR programmer and insert it to its IC base on the PCB. Otherwise, the SleekVoltMeter.HEX may be written to the MCU ATTINY85, using in-system programmer also. Connect 9V battery (or other DC source less than 12V), connect jumper J1, then switch on SW1. Once, the voltage is displayed on the OLED, adjust the VR1 to match the displayed voltage with the source voltage. Now, disconnect the testing voltage source. Now, the circuit is ready for use, which can read and display DC voltage upto 50V when jumper J1 is removed or display Source Battery voltage up to 12V battery with jumper J1 is connected. The OLED (display) automatically refreshes for every 2 to 3 seconds of measurement, for clearing display distortions, if any. Enjoy . . . Have a nice day. List of Important Components used in the Project: ATTINY85, AVR micro controller (8pin) OLED module, 0.96" size, 128x64 pixels, IIC controlled (4pin) 7805, 5VDC output regulator IC (3pin) 20K trimpot Doides 1N4007, 1Amp capacity (or equivalent) Capacitors: 10uF electrolytic , 0.1uF disc capacitor SPST switch Resistances: 3.3K, 10K, 33K (all 0.25W) LED 3mm size, yellow and red 9V battery or other DC source Miscellaneous : PCB, wires, jumpers, IC base etc. click the link / attachment to download the file and rename as SleekVoltmeter.HEX , then upload to ATMEGA8 using any suitable AVR programmer. SleekVoltmeter.HEX For source code (in C-language), (SleekVoltmeter.C) please send message through contact form . The code will be sent to your e-mail.

  • INSTRUMENTS | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    INSTRUMENTS The instruments necessary for Make-at-Home projects are listed below with comment as Basic or Important or Optional keyword, which means that, BASIC : very much required and affordable IMPORTANT : having this tool is advantageous OPTIONAL : may be purchased later STEEL RULE: A measuring scale made up of Stainless Steel is generally called as Steel-rule. The steel rules are generally available in standard lengths of 150mm (15cm) or 300mm (30cm) or 500mm (50cm) or 1000mm (1m). ​ The steel rules are more comfortable for measuring lengths, than plastic scales. The steel rules are also helpful to cut general purpose PCBs, card boards, plastic sheets, foam sheets etc., while making cabinets for circuits. ​ The most convenient and useful size is 300mm (12") steel rule shown below. (BASIC) ELECTRICAL TESTER : The electrical tester, seems to be a small screw driver, is one of the important tool for testing the presence of mains power supply. It is also useful to check leakage of mains power (phase line) to any component of the circuit( like transformer core, output lines etc.). You have to connect the tip (test probe) of the electrical tester to the mains (phase) and touch the other end. A light in the transparent sleeve glows to indicate the presence of the high voltage. This is very useful tool to check the leakage into your circuit, if the circuit is connected to mains power. (BASIC) CONTINUTITY TESTER : A continuity tester, as its name implies, tests the continuity between two ends of conductors (wires). It is simple in construction and usage. One end of the continuity tester holds a small battery, an LED and resistance in series, with a probe. The other end is connected to another probe with a flexible wire. When the two probes are connected to two ends of conductor to be tested, the LED glows, if there is no breakage , in between, else the LED does not glow, if there is dis-continuity in the conductor. (BASIC) MULTI-METER : The highly used and useful instrument in electronics is, no doubt, a Multi-meter. As the name implies, the multi-meter can be used for testing multiple parameters and its values ​ The following parameters can be tested, using a general/standard multi-meter. 1) AC volts 2) DC volts 3) DC current 4) Resistance 5) Continuity (with beep) etc. ​ Some multi-meters have more features than listed above, like; 1) Frequency 2) Transistor 3) Capacitance 4) Inductance etc. ​ The selection of parameters with accuracy and range of values varies for the multi-meters. The price of a multi-meter depends on the number of features / parameters it can measure and accuracy in displaying the measures value. Again, the price is also dependent on selection of range, like manual selection or auto selection. ​ As a novice, a basic model with manual selection multi-meter is sufficient for the purpose. (BASIC) For an expert, more features / parameters with higher accuracy and auto range selection is preferred. (IMPORTANT) ​ A manual range selection and auto range selection multi-meters are shown below as reference: LOGIC PROBE : A Logic probe is very useful instrument to know the status of digital circuits and its behavior by reading input and output of any component in a circuit. The power supply for the logic probe is used from the circuit under test and the test probe is touched to the required point on the circuit to know the logic state. LED indicators are used to show the logic state on the logic probe. Some logic probes can save the logic data, which may be used for analysing it afterwards. (IMPORTANT) OSCILLOSCOPE : An Oscilloscope is very useful instrument to know the wave-forms. But, it is costly instrument and requires basic knowledge in electronics. It is not required for the new learners (novice). It becomes essential for experts to have exact behavior of output w.r.t. input signals. (OPTIONAL) The secret of getting ahead is getting started. - Mark Twain

  • LEDs | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    LEDs: LED (means L ight E mitting D iode) is a semiconductor, works like a normal diode, but emits light in forward bias mode. It means LED releases energy in the form of photons when current flows through it. The flow of current is blocked when it is connected in reverse bias mode. The voltage drop across an LED is about 2.0V to 3.0V in forward bias (when the LED glows), depends on size, colour of the light it emits and manufacturer. ​ The maximum (or safe) current limit, in milliAmps, for an LED depends on its diameter (size) and approximately equal to its diameter in forward bias. eg: 3mm LED = 3mA, 5mm LED = 5mA and 10mm LED = 10mA etc. The brightness of light emitted depends on the current flowing though it. ​ To limit current flowing in an LED, connected at higher voltage than its forward bias, a resistor is used in series. The resistor value in series should be such that, the voltage across the LED should be approximately equals to voltage required to glow the LED and should not exceed the safe current limit of the LED. ​ eg: Assume an LED is to be connected across 12VDC in forward bias (for glowing as indicator). The voltage drop across the LED is about 2.7V and current flow through the LED is 3 mA (i.e. 0.003A). ​ sol: The voltage should be shared by the LED and resistor. since LED requires 2.7V, the remaining voltage should be dropped across the resistor. i.e., 12V – 2.7V = 9.3V. ​ Using ohm’s law, R = V / I , required resistance, R = 9.3V/0.003A. therefore, Resistance required = 3100 ohms. since, the resistance value is not a standard one, we may select 3300 ohms (3.3Kohms) resistor. ​ Once, resistance value is set, now the actual current may be calculated using formula I = V / R, i.e., 9.3 / 3300 = 0.0028A (2.8 mA). The resistance power requirement may be calculated by multiplying Voltage and Current across the resistor. so, 9.3V x 0.0028A =0.026W (26mW or above). The LED should NOT be connected in reverse bias above its breakdown voltage. The breakdown voltage depends on model and manufacturing company. In general, the breakdown voltage for an LED may be considered as 5V, but, some LEDs may withstand up to 20V in reverse bias (refer datasheets). The following coloured lighting may be available on various LEDs: Red, Green, Yellow, Blue, Amber, White, Infrared etc. Some LEDs have the same body colour of light called Diffusion LEDs and some LEDs have transperent (glass like) body, but, emits various colours of light. Multi-coloured LEDs: Some multiple colour light emitting LEDs are concealed in to a single LED and identified with more than two leads connection. ​ In general Red-Green LED have three leads, one for red (anode) another for green (anode) and third one is common (cathode) to both. They are available in common anode and common cathode models. ​ Similarly, Red-Green-Blue LED have four leads, three for three colours and forth one is common. ​ Some LEDs have two leads, but, built-in chip with three colored (RGB) LEDs, which changes their colour automatically in a fixed time period. More varieties of LEDs are available now-a-days. i.e., Infra-Red rays emitting (IR) LEDs , UltraViolet rays emitting (UV) LEDs etc., which are explained in Sensors section. ​ Power LEDs: Power LED is similar to normal LED in operation, except its high current carrying capacity. Power LEDs emit more and bright lighting. Power LEDs are available in 0.5W, 1W, 2W etc. To know its current requirement of a power LED, divide the Power by the Voltage drop across the LED. eg: 2W LED requires 2W/3V = 0.667A (667 mA) approximately. Some power LEDs are available along with heat sink fitted beneath them LED Strip: A number of LEDs are connected in series with a resistance as a set on a flexible strip, which may connected directly to a particular voltage (say 12VDC). These sets are again connected in parallel to make a long (infinite) strip, so that all sets may be connected to a single DC power supply. SMD LED: LEDs are available in SMD (Surface Mount Devices) size also. They are tiny in size, anode (+ve) and cathode (-ve) are marked on the LED.

  • SanitizerFullAutomatic | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    Sanitizer - Full Automatic In the COVID-19 (CORONAVIRUS) pandamic, an automatic Hand Sanitizer is very essential and useful. This Sanitizer may be used at home or office entrance. A 9VDC or 12VDC (500mA) Adapter may be used as power supply for the circuit through the Arduino Uno DC jack. The basic working of the circuit is, an Ultra-Sonic sensor (HC-SR04) sends signal continuously and checks for any obstruction (say your hand) and sends the pulse based on the distance of the obstruction. If the distance measured is in between 20cm and 40cm, then the Arduino Uno sends the signal to Servo motor (MG995) to operate its shaft. The lever connected to the servo motor shaft in turn pulls the lever of the Sanitizer Bottle, which sprays the liquid available in the bottle. The Nozzle of Sprayer bottle has two options, wide spray or narrow spray by rotating the tip of nozzle to 180 degrees. ​ Refer full circuit diagram: Initial Setup / Testing : Some components, like 7805 (a fixed 5V voltage regulator) and berg strips for easy connections to Servo motor and Ultrasonic sensor are soldered on a general purpose PCB. The connections to the PCB are made such that the berg strip pins are soldered on opposite side of the PCB and matched the pins of Arduino Uno board. So, the PCB may be directly placed on the Arduino Uno board. The servo motor requires up to 400 mA current (at 5V). So, a separate 5VDC power supply is provided through the 7805 IC. ​ Once the circuit is ready, then the sketch (Sanitizer_USsensor.ino ) may be compiled and uploaded to the Arudino Uno board using Arduino IDE. ​ Now, connect 9VDC (8VDC to 12VDC, 500mA) power supply to Arduino Uno board through its DC jack. Two separate debugging elements are provided on the PCB. ​ 1) TEST BUTTON: To test and adjust the stroke (angle of rotation ) for the servo motor, a Test Button is provided. By pressing the Test Button, the servo motor rotates as per the angle set in the sketch. So, you may adjust the angle or tension of the pulling wire of the lever. ​ 2) SENSOR LED: An LED will glow, whenever the Ultrasonic sensor is sending pulse which matches to the required distance range (set 20cm to 40cm here). The range may be modified in the sketch as per your requirement. ​ All THE BEST. ENJOY. FINAL ASSEMBLY : FRONT & BACK VIEWS For source code (arduino sketch), (Sanitizer_USsensor.ino) please send message through contact form . The code will be sent to your e-mail.

  • SuperbPowerController | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    Superb Power Controller BTA41-600B The Triac BTA41-600B is so powerful that, it can handle up to 41 amperes AC, which makes controlling more powered AC equipment. So, the project described here is to control high power electrical gadgets, like heaters, motors etc. The naming of Triac BTA41-600B is self explanatory as shown here. Heat sink has to provided to the triac for high value of power control. A cooling fan is to heat sink is to be provided for higher power control. Its metal tab is insulated, so no need to use mica insulation between the triac and heat sink. The circuit diagram for dimmer -cum- power control is shown below. For high power motors (above 2KW), 47 ohm 5W resistor has to be used, instead of 100 ohm 2W. Basic Working Principle: ​ The terminals of triac (pins 1 and 2) starts conducting, when the voltage at gate (pin 3) reaches the threshold voltage. So, the threshold voltage is controlled by the variable resistor (470K) and 10K series resistors with 0.1 micro-Farad disc capacitor. The diac DB3 swtiches on, when its threshold voltage (controlled by the variable resistor), which appears at the gate pin of triac. Then, the triac starts conducting for the half-cycle of sinusoidal wave of AC input. This process continues for every half-cycle of the sine wave. ​ Due to delay in charging of the 0.1uF, through variable resistor, the initial voltage required for diac to start (threshold voltage) is also delayed. So, the triac also starts conducting after some time, which reduces the power transmitted through the terminals of triac also. ​ The series connected 100 ohm resistor and 0.1uF capacitor works as snubber, which is required while connecting inductance load like motor, transformer etc. ​

  • AVR_PROGRAM | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    AVR - Programming: You have read concepts and required basic theory in previous sessions. Now, we are moving towards practial programming of an AVR micro-controller. A Personal Computer or laptop, which can run atleast Office programs/tools (like word / spread sheets etc.) is essential for programming AVR micro-controller. ​ For, testing and practice, you may select any AVR micro-controller. But, due to availability of four ports, having most of the communication types, more ADC channels and having ISP (In-System Programming) pins of programming port at one place (ease and convenience in soldering on PCB), ATMEGA16 is selected for explanation. The actual ATMEGA16/32 micro-controller board developed for testing and pinouts of ATMEAGA 16/32 are shown here for conenience. Many ATMEAGA 16/32 development boards are available in the market, but, making a board for yourself, makes you easily understand concepts of working, more space for practice and proto-typing in future. The most important advantage is more flexibility , while developing your own project. Programming of AVR micro-controller has two parts. 1) Software or Coding 2) Hardware or programmer. Software or Coding: You may use any programming software available, by downloading from internet. Most of the softwares are free (or limited or GPA agreement) to download and program for personal or educational use. The program logic and sequence are almost same for all softwares, but, syntax of the statement(s) may vary. ​ Here, we use AVR Studio 4 (uses C-language for coding, which is easy to understand for starters) which is easy to install, understand and requires less disk space. You have to download the AVR Studio 4 software and tool chain package Then install both the softwares on your system (PC) consecutively as per your OS (Operating System). Once you are comfortable and understand the programming, you may use next versions or other softwares for programming AVR. ​ Link to AVR softwares download page (courtacy Microchip): https://www.microchip.com/mplab/avr-support/avr-and-sam-downloads-archive Using AVR Studio: Once installed AVR Studio 4, click the shrotcut for AVR Studio 4, available on the desktop. Then, follow the 4 steps as shown below: Now, start writing the code in C-language, where space is provided. Once, your code typed, then select "Build All" from "Build" menu on the top. Don't forget to save the project and files. After compiling the source code (written in C-language), the output files will be generated. Out of which the .HEX file is to be written (or burn) to the AVR micro-controller using AVR programmer, which is explained below. The .HEX file is available at project-path\project-name\default\project-name.HEX Hardware or Programmer: AVR programmer is required, to write the HEX code generated by the AVR Studio to the flash memory of the AVR micro controller. AVR may be programmed many ways like, Parallel programming, JTAG, ISP etc., You may use any programmer available in the market. Most of the programmers use USB port for programming. ​ For new programmers, USB-ISP programmer is suggested for its simplicity, availability and uses less number of pins of micro-controller while programming. These programmers come with USB connector one side and 6 or 10 pin connector for ISP port on the other side with a small module / board is connected in between. The requied drivers and programming software (IDE) matching to the hardware has to be installed on the system (PC). ​ The pinouts / orientation of three types of headers available are shown below. The first one being widely available, I feel the third one is more comfortable for programming AVR in ISP mode. The header connections may be modified as 6 pin straight model (like third one), using 6 pin relimate connector with wires. The reason for straight header is, out of 6 pins, most of the AVR contans atleast 3 pins in series and matches the sequence of the MOSI-MISO-SCK. ​ For the ATMEGA 16/32, all the six pins matches the pinouts/sequence of the third ISP header. Using the USB Programmer: When you purchase any AVR programmer , an installation software is supplied along with it or supplier provides link to download the required software. Otherwise, many USB programmers are available on-line to download, like AVRDUDE, WINAVR, USBASP, BURN-O-MAT, PROGISP, PONYPROG etc.. These are simple and easy to install and use softwares for programming AVR micro controllers. One of the AVR programmer (IDE) software, which is easy to install and use is PROGISP is explained here. Once downloaded and installed the PROGISP, then run executable file (progisp.exe) or the other software downloaded and installed by you. Change the port to USB, if required or indicated in installation procedure of the particular programmer. Press calibration button once, if available in the menu and let the software check and match the programming frequiencies. For some softwares, these steps may be optional or not required at all. ​ For any AVR programmer, first, select the type of AVR micro controller is to be programmed (eg: ATMEGA16 or ATTINY13 etc.). Then select "Load Flash" or equivalent option from the menu. Now, select the HEX file from your computer, which was generated by the AVR Studio (on compiling and building the code). The HEX code will be loaded to the programmers buffer memory. ​ Now, press "Erase Chip" and "Write Flash" , consecutively. Most of the AVR programming softwares, Erase the Chip before Writting the Flash to AVR by default. Then, a progress bar or status is displayed, while programming the AVR micro-controller. Once, the HEX code is written/burnt to the AVR micro controller, the status window shows "Success" message or "Error" message with error code. ​ Once, the HEX code is written to the AVR micro-controller, then the AVR starts working as per the HEX code loaded to it. Now, disconnect the AVR programmer hearder from the project AVR board. In case of error, go through the error message and correct the settings or code, if any. Now, try writting the code to the AVR micro-controller once again. SUMMARY: The above explained process is to be done initially. Once, installed all softwares and drivers as required, then, every time write your code with your own logic using AVR Studio and create HEX code. Then write/burn the HEX code to the AVR micro controller using the AVR programmer. That's all. BEST OF LUCK. ​

  • mcuIO | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    microcontroller - INPUT AND OUTPUT Input and Output (I/O) of a micro-controller is the main and basic concept to be understood before programming. Micro-controllers use Registers (Seperate RAM or Part of RAM assigned for the I/O data. status etc.) to send or receive data to/from the external pins. So, these Registers has to be programmed to function the pins as digital input or digital output or analog input or analog output etc. Some Registers are used as buffer to send or receive the data. ​ Digital Input and Output: Almost all the pins may be used as either digital output or digital input signal pins. The direction of signal (i.e., input or output) has to be declared once in the specific Register, before using the pin for the purpose. The reading (for input) or writing (for output) of signal may be used any number of times throughout the program by reading from or writing to the specific register(s). If the pin is set as output, then the pin number and signal high/low will be passed as arguments (parameters) to the function. In case, same pin is set as input, the pin number is set as argument (parameter) to the function and the function returns the value, high/low, at that instant (or moment). Analog Input or Output : Some of the micro-controllers support Analog Input and/or Analog Output. Similar to Digital Input and Output, Analog Input or Output should be declared and initiated once, using some specific set of commands, before calling the function to read or write Analog value. Some of the pins only support Analog Input or Output, which are marked for ADC/DAC pins (unlike Digital Input/Ouput). ​ Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) : The micro-controller reads Analog input in volts, that is applied at the pin set as Analog Input and converts it to digital code. The digital code size or accuracy varies from 8 bit to 16 bit. So many types of algorithms are used to convert the Analog input to Digital data, depending on the micro-controller. ​ Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) : Some micro-controllers support DAC, which will send a specific analog voltage as per the digital data set in the specific register. The required registers has to be initiated before using DAC functions of the micro-controller. ​ Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) : PWM is a ouput feature supported by some micro-controllers. The output is similar to digital output, but, the time of HIGH signal and time of LOW signal, continuously varies, which depends on the values set in the PWM control register(s). By using this feature, the speed of a DC motor or brightness of a light etc., may be varied without changing the supply voltage to them. The allowed amount of current flow through the pins of a micro-controller is very less, which may be approximately 3mA (please refer datasheet of particular micro-controller). So, the micro-controller may drive an LED through a current limiting resistor. To drive heavy loads like motors, coils, relays etc., a transistor or MOSFET or driver IC has to be used. There is every chance to damage the micro-controller, if heavy current (more than the limit) are flowing through the pin(s). ​ The syntax and keywords may vary for the micro-controller and IDEs (integrated Development Environments) used for programming. ​

  • Relays | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    RELAYS Relays are used to control high voltage and/or high current equipment/gadget using a switch, which consumes low and safe voltage and/or current. In other words, relay is a mediator to convert low and safe operating power to high operating power requirement. A relay is also used to isolate the high voltage power supply from low voltage control power supply, thus protecting the operator from high voltage operating risk. Some times Relays are used to control AC equipment with DC signal and vice-versa. One of the main advantage of a relay is the isolation of control power supply (AC/DC) with the main operating power supply (AC/DC). i.e., independent of AC and DC power supplies. Relay Construction: A relay consists of an electro-magnet and a set of strips (conductors) connected parallel on to a steel plate with isolation to each other. Each strip is fixed at one end, which is called as common pin and other end is set free, which works as a lever. One contact on electro-magnet side or two contacts on both sides of the free end is provided with a fixed gap. The free end is set away from the electro-magnet pointing towards the steel plate, by default. The free end of the strip(s) moves towards the magnet by attracting steel plate, when the coil of electro-magnet is energised by a power supply. ​ The contact away from the electro-magnet, normally connecting to free end of the strip is called Normally Closed (N/C) contact. The contact towards the electro-magnet, normally disconnected to the free end of the strip is called Normally Open (N/O) contact. The N/O contact gets connected to the free end of the strip when the electro-magnet is enegised and attracts the steel plate towards it. ​ The working principle of a SPDT Relay is shown in animation here for easy understanding. Relay Types: If only one contact is available to touch the free end of the strip, then it is called Single Throw (ST) contact. If two contacts are available to touch on both sides of free end of the strip, then it is called Double Throw (DT) contact. ​ If one strip is connected to the steel plate then it is called Single Pole (SP). In case, two strips are connected to the steel plate then it is called as Double Pole (DP). Similarly, if three strips are connected to the steel plate, then it is called as Triple Pole (TP). The number of poles (strips) and number of throws combination available in relays are: SPST = Single Pole Single Throw DPST = Double Pole Single Throw TPST = Triple Pole Single Throw SPDT = Single Pole Double Throw DPDT = Double Pole Double Throw TPDT = Triple Pole Double Throw The electrical characteristics of a relay to be observed, which are normally printed on the cover / encloser of the relay : Operating voltage of the electro-magnet coil : One of the most important specification of the relay is the operating voltage of eletro-magnet coil and also check the AC/DC which energises the coil. Voltage applied above the rated value may damage the coil and less voltage may not have sufficient magnetic power to pull the steel plate to switch on the relay. Operating Voltage and Current of the poles : The Maximum Voltage and Current handling capacity of the poles (strips) are also important to the match the requirement. The values may vary for AC circuit and DC circuit. So, care should be taken while selecting proper relay. Number of poles : The number of contacts (strips) get connected and disconnected while operating the relay should match the requirement. Number of Throws : A double throw relay may be used in place of single throw relay, but, reverse may not serve the purpose, if both the poles are used in the circuit. Size, Shape and connecting details : If, the relay is to be replaced in an existing circuit, then it has to suit the connector. Some times, size and shape are also important to accommodate in the circuit board.

  • Arduino_Nokia5110 | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    Introduction to Nokia 5110 Display : The Nokia 5110 is a simple Monochrome Graphical (LCD) Display with 84 x 48 pixel resolution, which is useful in Arduino projects for displaying small and simple Graphics. The price of the Nokia 5110 display is affordable and ease to interface with Arduino board. The Display have a Back Light, like other LCD displays, for clarity. The data is also visible, without switching on the Back Light. The Nokia 5110 resolution consists of 6 row banks. each row bank has 8 vertical pixels and 84 horizontal pixels. So, total pixels per row bank = 8x84 = 672 pixels Hence, overall resolution for 6 row banks = 6x672 = 4032 pixels or, vertical resolution (y-axis) = 6 row banks x 8 rows per bank = 48 pixels Horizontal Resolution (x-axis) = 84 pixels in each row . Total resolution = 84 x 48 = 4032 pixels ​ Since, each pixels requires 1 bit (for monochrome) only, total memory space required = 4032/8 = 504 bytes (where 8 bits makes a byte) Here, Front and Back views of actual Nokia 5110 display is shown. The pixel orientation is also shown as schematic, for better understanding. The pinouts of Nokia 5110 are shown above. It has 8 pins, out of which 2 pins are used for serial data comminication (i.e. Data Input and Clock), 3 pins are used for control (i.e., Reset, Chip Enable and Data/Command Select), 2 pins for power supply (i.e., Vcc and Ground) and one pin is used to switch on/off Back Light (connected to Vcc through a series resistor). Interfacing Nokia5110 to Arduino : So, as per the pin-outs of Nokia 5110, the data and control pins (total 5 nos) are to be connected to Arduino digital pins. The Vcc pin to 3.3V pin, Ground to Gnd pin of Arduino. The BL (Back Light) pin may be connected to 3.3V or 5V supply through a series resistor. The basic connections to Nokia 5110 to Arduino Nano are shown, as an example (or test circuit) in below circuit diagram. Now, open Nokia5110.ino using Arduino IDE. The sketch includes library file Nokia5110.CPP and a font file LCDfont.h . Now, compile the sketch and upload to the Arduino board. ​ After uploading the sketch the Various display options on Nokia 5110 are shown as examples. like displaying an image, text message, simple graphics, inverted text, inverted colour (display on black background), with and without Back light on. View Video For full source code and library files contact us through Contact Form.

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