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  • OmniRobosimple mechatronics

    OMNI ROBO 00 Omni Wheel Intro to omni wheel Read More 01 Omni Robo Base Intro to Omni Robo - BASE Read More 02 Omni Robo Joystick Intro to joystick and control Read More

  • Fundassimple mechatronics

    Fundamentals Fundamentals of Electricity About AC power supply About DC power Supply

  • SlimBot

    Slim Bot 1 Base & IR follower How to DIY . . . . . A slim and compact robot working WITHOUT any MICRO-CONTROLLER and NO programming . . . 2 IR based Line Follower How to DIY . . . . . A slim and compact IR line follower working WITHOUT any MICRO-CONTROLLER. NO programming . . . 3 LDR based Line Follower How to DIY . . . . . A slim and compact LDR based line follower working WITHOUT any MICRO-CONTROLLER. NO programming . . . 4 Wireless Keypad Control How to DIY . . . . . A slim and compact BOT controlled using wireless Keypad, WITHOUT any MICRO-CONTROLLER. NO programming . . . 5 Wireless Joystick Control How to DIY . . . . . A slim and compact BOT controlled using wireless Analog Joystick, WITHOUT any MICRO-CONTROLLER. NO programming . . . 6 Wireless 5D Rocker Control How to DIY . . . . . A slim and compact BOT controlled using wireless Digital 5D Rocker Joystick, WITHOUT any MICRO-CONTROLLER. NO programming . . . 7 Wireless Hand Gesture Control How to DIY . . . . . A slim and compact BOT controlled using wireless Hand Gestures, WITHOUT any MICRO-CONTROLLER. NO programming . . .

  • SmallRobot

    Small Robot 1 Base Frame # The Base frame consists of chassis + Power supply + Motors + Wheels + Motor Control board . . . Read More . . . 3 Joystick Control # A simple Joystick module can control the Small Robot in all the directions. RF transmitter and receiver makes the control wireless . . . . . Read More . . . 6 Line Follower # The Line Follower moves on a black or white line automatically adjusts . . . . . . . Read More . . . 8 Edge Detector # The Edge Detector detects the edge of a flat sufaces takes turn automati.... Read More . . . 2 Keypad Control # A four keyed Keypad can control the Small Robot in all 4 directions. RF transmitter and receiver makes the control wireless . . . . . Read More . . . 4 IR Remote Control # An Infra-Red remote used to control Panasonic Audio (clone) is used to control movement of Small Robot in all directions, wireless . . . . . Read More . . . 7 Path Follower # The Path Follower moves within a path or two lines and automatically adjusts . . . . . . . Read More . . . 9 Obstacle Avoider # The Obstacle Avoider detects obstacle in front of it, and automatically . . Read More . . .

  • Simple MECHATRONICS : Self-learn Electronics, Mechatronics & Robotics|online|SMsimple mechatronics

    Home: Welcome Make @ Home Projects ELECTRONICS ARDUINO AVR To play, press and hold the enter key. To stop, release the enter key. Various control sytems of SLIM-BOT without any Micro-controller To play, press and hold the enter key. To stop, release the enter key. AVR/ATTINY based various controls of SMALL ROBOT Learn @ Home Topics RESISTORs :: eBASICS :: To play, press and hold the enter key. To stop, release the enter key. Step-by-Step Learning ARDUINO Wishing Today is a Great Day to you by learning a new thing. This blog is developed for the students, hobbyists and enthusiasts . The main aim is self-learning of electronics, mechatronics step-by-step from basics to practical knowledge and Make-at-Home Projects. Hope this is the easiest way to learn and practice about electronics and mechatronics. Explained through CONCEPTS and PRACTICALS. i.e., a self learning School for Students and Enthusiasts, who wants to know and practice their own. ​ Click on the left-top for HOME PAGE , which is always available for easy navigation to the list of contents and also available through the menu. SEARCH by a keyword or phrase is also always available at the top of all the pages for convenience . ​ This website is BEST VIEWED in Desktop / Laptop / Tab, when comapared to mobile. ​ -: ALL THE BEST :- DREAM is not what you see in sleep, DREAM is something which doesn't let you sleep. – Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam Home: Works

  • AVR_PROGRAM | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    AVR - Programming: You have read concepts and required basic theory in previous sessions. Now, we are moving towards practial programming of an AVR micro-controller. A Personal Computer or laptop, which can run atleast Office programs/tools (like word / spread sheets etc.) is essential for programming AVR micro-controller. ​ For, testing and practice, you may select any AVR micro-controller. But, due to availability of four ports, having most of the communication types, more ADC channels and having ISP (In-System Programming) pins of programming port at one place (ease and convenience in soldering on PCB), ATMEGA16 is selected for explanation. The actual ATMEGA16/32 micro-controller board developed for testing and pinouts of ATMEAGA 16/32 are shown here for conenience. Many ATMEAGA 16/32 development boards are available in the market, but, making a board for yourself, makes you easily understand concepts of working, more space for practice and proto-typing in future. The most important advantage is more flexibility , while developing your own project. Programming of AVR micro-controller has two parts. 1) Software or Coding 2) Hardware or programmer. Software or Coding: You may use any programming software available, by downloading from internet. Most of the softwares are free (or limited or GPA agreement) to download and program for personal or educational use. The program logic and sequence are almost same for all softwares, but, syntax of the statement(s) may vary. ​ Here, we use AVR Studio 4 (uses C-language for coding, which is easy to understand for starters) which is easy to install, understand and requires less disk space. You have to download the AVR Studio 4 software and tool chain package Then install both the softwares on your system (PC) consecutively as per your OS (Operating System). Once you are comfortable and understand the programming, you may use next versions or other softwares for programming AVR. ​ Link to AVR softwares download page (courtacy Microchip): https://www.microchip.com/mplab/avr-support/avr-and-sam-downloads-archive Using AVR Studio: Once installed AVR Studio 4, click the shrotcut for AVR Studio 4, available on the desktop. Then, follow the 4 steps as shown below: Now, start writing the code in C-language, where space is provided. Once, your code typed, then select "Build All" from "Build" menu on the top. Don't forget to save the project and files. After compiling the source code (written in C-language), the output files will be generated. Out of which the .HEX file is to be written (or burn) to the AVR micro-controller using AVR programmer, which is explained below. The .HEX file is available at project-path\project-name\default\project-name.HEX Hardware or Programmer: AVR programmer is required, to write the HEX code generated by the AVR Studio to the flash memory of the AVR micro controller. AVR may be programmed many ways like, Parallel programming, JTAG, ISP etc., You may use any programmer available in the market. Most of the programmers use USB port for programming. ​ For new programmers, USB-ISP programmer is suggested for its simplicity, availability and uses less number of pins of micro-controller while programming. These programmers come with USB connector one side and 6 or 10 pin connector for ISP port on the other side with a small module / board is connected in between. The requied drivers and programming software (IDE) matching to the hardware has to be installed on the system (PC). ​ The pinouts / orientation of three types of headers available are shown below. The first one being widely available, I feel the third one is more comfortable for programming AVR in ISP mode. The header connections may be modified as 6 pin straight model (like third one), using 6 pin relimate connector with wires. The reason for straight header is, out of 6 pins, most of the AVR contans atleast 3 pins in series and matches the sequence of the MOSI-MISO-SCK. ​ For the ATMEGA 16/32, all the six pins matches the pinouts/sequence of the third ISP header. Using the USB Programmer: When you purchase any AVR programmer , an installation software is supplied along with it or supplier provides link to download the required software. Otherwise, many USB programmers are available on-line to download, like AVRDUDE, WINAVR, USBASP, BURN-O-MAT, PROGISP, PONYPROG etc.. These are simple and easy to install and use softwares for programming AVR micro controllers. One of the AVR programmer (IDE) software, which is easy to install and use is PROGISP is explained here. Once downloaded and installed the PROGISP, then run executable file (progisp.exe) or the other software downloaded and installed by you. Change the port to USB, if required or indicated in installation procedure of the particular programmer. Press calibration button once, if available in the menu and let the software check and match the programming frequiencies. For some softwares, these steps may be optional or not required at all. ​ For any AVR programmer, first, select the type of AVR micro controller is to be programmed (eg: ATMEGA16 or ATTINY13 etc.). Then select "Load Flash" or equivalent option from the menu. Now, select the HEX file from your computer, which was generated by the AVR Studio (on compiling and building the code). The HEX code will be loaded to the programmers buffer memory. ​ Now, press "Erase Chip" and "Write Flash" , consecutively. Most of the AVR programming softwares, Erase the Chip before Writting the Flash to AVR by default. Then, a progress bar or status is displayed, while programming the AVR micro-controller. Once, the HEX code is written/burnt to the AVR micro controller, the status window shows "Success" message or "Error" message with error code. ​ Once, the HEX code is written to the AVR micro-controller, then the AVR starts working as per the HEX code loaded to it. Now, disconnect the AVR programmer hearder from the project AVR board. In case of error, go through the error message and correct the settings or code, if any. Now, try writting the code to the AVR micro-controller once again. SUMMARY: The above explained process is to be done initially. Once, installed all softwares and drivers as required, then, every time write your code with your own logic using AVR Studio and create HEX code. Then write/burn the HEX code to the AVR micro controller using the AVR programmer. That's all. BEST OF LUCK. ​

  • Resistors | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    Resistors: As the name indicates, Resistor reduces flow of current in a circuit. Resistor is highly used element in electronic circuit. The value of a resistor is called Resistance and its units are (i.e. measured in) Ohms. The symbol for Ohms is omega ( Ω ). The property of the material which exerts resistance is called resistivity and its units are rho ( ρ ). Fixed Value Resistors: The value of resistance cannot be modified in a circuit is Fixed Resistor. These resistors are made of mixture of mainly carbon and part of ceramics to attain the required resistance value. The surface is coated with resin and colour bands are marked on its surface to indicate its resistance value in case of small size resistors. For big size resistors, the resistance value , tolerance and power is printed on the surface of the resistor. For higher power and lower resistance requirements wire wound (a wire is wound on a hollow insulating shell and coated with resin) resistors are used. ​ Standard Resistance values available in multiples of 1.0 / 1.2 / 1.5 / 2.2 / 3.3 / 4.7 / 5.6 / 6.8 / 8.1 ohms. ​ Normally Resistor are available in following Wattages 0.25W / 0.5W / 1W / 2W / 5W / 10W and so…on. The value of resistance on fixed resistor is marked using colour bands on its surface in a coded form. The first and second colour bands indicates two digits sequentially with respective colour code, the third colour band is the number power to 10 for that colour and the forth colour band indicates tolerance value, i.e., maximum + / – deviation of resistance value. Variable Resistors: As the fixed resistors have tolerances, which makes the user cannot totally depend on the exact resistance value of the fixed resistor. Variable resistor is useful when the resistance is to be adjusted to suit the circuit requirement. ​ Variable resistor generally have 3 connections, two connections for extremes of carbon resistance and one connection is connected to moving arm, which moves on the carbon resistance for adjustment. ​ Small size variable resistors which are used to be fixed on the PCB and adjusted rarely are called Trimpot. The bigger size variable resistor, which is frequently used to vary the resistance and have knob fit on to it is called Potentiometer . OHM's Law -vs- Resistors: In simple terms, Ohm's law states that the voltage across a resistor is directly proportional to the current flowing through the resistance. So, as per Ohm’s law, V or I or R are inter-connected and each value can be calculated, if other values are known. Assuming the Voltage is fixed for a circuit, in general, by increasing resistance, the current flowing through the resistacne will decrease and vice-versa. ​ Once the V, I and R are calculated, then the power (W) requirement of Resistor is to be calculated. If the resistor wattage is less than the calculated value, then either resistor will get over-heated or damaged. Resistors in SERIES Connection: If multiple resistors are used in series in electronic circuits, the resultant resistance is equal to sum of each resistance in the circuit. So, the Resultant Resistance is always more than any resistance in series connection in the circuit. Resistors in PARALLEL Connection: If multiple resistors are connected in parallel in a circuit, the inverse resultant resistance is equal to sum of inverse resistance of each resistor in parallel. The Resultant Resistance is always less than any resistance value of any resistor in the parallel connection in the circuit. Adding resistor parallel to existing resistor reduces overall resistance and increases total current flowing through both the resistors MORE RESISTANCE CONNECTIONS ARE AVAILABLE IN RLC CIRCUITS (FUTURE USE)

  • Op-Amps | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    op-amp: OP-AMP (Operational Amplifier) is basically a differentiator, which reads two electrical signals as inputs and sends the output signal accordingly with amplification. OP-AMP should have at least 5 pins. i.e., ​ Non-Inverting input pin Inverting Input pin Output pin Positive power supply pin Negative (or sometimes ground ) pin The two inputs are marked as NON-INVERTING INPUT or PLUS (+) and INVERTING INPUT or MINUS (-) . The output swings towards Positive, if the signal voltage at NON-INVERTING INPUT is higher than at INVERTING INPUT and vice-versa. GAIN: Some part of output signal called as feedback is used as input signal to INVERTING or NON-INVERTING inputs to adjust the amplification factor, which is also called as gain. The range of gain varies from 1 (also called as unity gain) to infinity depending on the feedback set to the input pins. So, the value of the output will be depending on the difference in voltage at INVERTING and NON-INVERTING inputs and amplification factor (gain) set by the RLC (resistor, inductor, capacitor) circuit used between output pin to INVERTING or NON-INVERTING input pin(s) as feedback. OPEN LOOP GAIN AMPLIFIER: If the output pin does not send any feedback to any input pin, then the amplification is infinity . It is also known as saturation stage. ​ Means, a small difference in signal at INVERTING and NON-INVERTING inputs, swings the output to either Positive or Negative (ground). In this condition OP-AMP works as BISTABLE (either ON or OFF) amplifier, which may be considered as digital switch. ​ The four conditions of open loop amplifier is presented here. UNITY GAIN AMPLIFIER: Similarly, if the output signal is directly connected to NON-INVERTING input of the OP-AMP, the exact difference in the input voltage is available at output. This is called UNITY GAIN amplifier. ​ This is also called Unity Gain BUFFER, since, the output voltage matches the input voltage and the output current is amplified to drive relays and other electronic equipment with (small current) input signal. So, the main advantage and usage of Unity Gain Amplifier is, high input impedance and least output impedance. Which means, a very weak signal (with low current) will be amplified to high current output to drive other devices, where output voltage being the difference of the voltages at both the input pins. NEGATIVE FEED-BACK GAIN AMPLIFIER: A part of output signal is sent to one of the inputs, which is called as feedback. Most of the times the feedback is sent to INVERTING input, which is called as NEGATIVE FEED-BACK AMPLIFIER. There are two cases of Negative Feed-back amplifiers. In case, the input signal is connected to NON-INVERTING input, the output signal will be amplified (gain) and always more than one with maximum input impedance. ​ The Negative feed-back amplifier configuration is highly used in electronics circuits to control machinery and read & amplify weak signals. POSITIVE FEED-BACK GAIN AMPLIFIER: In case, the input signal is connected to INVERTING input through the resistance, the output signal will be inverted and amplification factor (gain) depends on the resistance network (R1 and R2). ​ Similarly, the feedback may be connected to NON-INVERTING input. The output signal is inverted and swings to extremes with small delay, which is called HYSTERESIS. This is called as POSITIVE FEED-BACK AMPLIFIER. ​ The Positive Feed-back Amplifiers are used as Latches, Oscillating circuits, Filters etc.

  • AVR_SPI | SimpleMechatronics| Simple MECHATRONICSsimple mechatronics

    AVR - SPI: Read Before: Micro-controller Communications >> TWI / IIC / I2C: TWI (Two Wire Interface) is also called IIC or I2C or IsquaredC (Inter Integrated Circuit) Protocol, which is frequently used for communication in AVR micro-controllers. ​

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